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True vocal cords function

True vocal cords Radiology Reference Article

The true vocal cords are the thickened, free edge of the cricovocal membrane, the cricovocal ligament, lined by mucous membrane 1.Together they form part of the glottis, the V-shaped aperture through which air passes. Their primary role is in phonation where vibration of the adducted vocal cords gives rise to sound waves with a certain pitch They vibrate, modulating the flow of air being expelled from the lungs during phonation. The 'true vocal cords' are distinguished from the 'false vocal folds', known as vestibular folds or ventricular folds, which sit slightly superior to the more delicate true folds Subsequently, question is, what is the function of the true vocal cords? Briefly, the vocal folds are folds of tissue located in the larynx (voicebox) that have three important functions: To protect the airway from choking on material in the throat. To regulate the flow of air into our lungs. The production of sounds used for speech False vocal cords are also known as vestibular folds. The true vocal cords are responsible for the voice production by vibration and contraction of the folds The two true vocal cords (or folds) represent the chief mechanism of the larynx in its function as a valve for opening the airway for breathing and to close it during swallowing. The vocal cords are supported by the thyroarytenoid ligaments, which exten

Functional Human Larynx Model G20 | Throat / Vocal Cords

Vocal cords - Wikipedi

The vocal folds are to separate structures which are located in the larynx or voice box. Humans have two vocal folds which open and close during normal breathing, and during sound production, or phonation, the vocal folds come together and vibrate. The vocal folds are intricately layered, which is the reason for unique sound production A more complete description of the vocal folds and the larynx can be found elsewhere. Briefly, the vocal folds are folds of tissue located in the larynx (voicebox) that have three important functions: To protect the airway from choking on material in the throat. To regulate the flow of air into our lungs Vocalis muscle (musculus vocalis) Vocalis is a paired intrinsic laryngeal muscle, which sits parallel to the vocal ligament.Some authors consider it to be composed of fibers of the thyroarytenoid muscle.. Together with the vocal ligament, this muscle is the main component of the vocal cords or vocal folds. The vocal folds form the anterolateral edges of the rima glottidis and are concerned.

Vocal Cord Paralysis Video (Abductor Muscle Paralysis - Weak Raspy Voice) This video shows the function of the true vocal cords. In a patient with a left non-compensated abductor paralysis. The left true vocal cord is in a paramedian position, but not midline. The voice is weak and hoarse. Search PubMed for Vocal Cord Paralysi True vocal cords are used primarily in voice production. The cords surround connective tissue called the ventricular ligament. This ligament connects to portions of the larynx and thus to the tissues in the mouth that regulate swallowing called the epiglottis. False vocal cords help protect these tissues Vocal cords. The two true vocal cords (or folds) represent the chief mechanism of the larynx in its function as a valve for opening the airway for breathing and to close it during swallowing.The vocal cords are supported by the thyroarytenoid ligaments, which extend from the vocal process of the arytenoid cartilages forward to the inside angle of the thyroid wings

Larynx Flashcards | Quizlet

True vocal cords definition, the lower pair of vocal cords, the edges of which can be made to tense and relax by the passage of air from the lungs, thus producing vocal sound. See more False vocal cords, even if denervated, resist air flow from the lower respiratory tract and serve expectorative function. The true vocal cords resist air flow from outside and play a protective. The vocal cords play a crucial role in phonation. The muscles that are responsible for vocal cord movement are mainly innervated by the recurrent laryngeal nerves. The recurrent laryngeal nerves are branches of the vagal nerves The vestibular folds (false vocal cords) lie superiorly to the true vocal cords. They consist of the vestibular ligament (free lower edge of the quadrangular membrane) covered by a mucous membrane, and are pink in colour. They are fixed folds, which act to provide protection to the larynx

Respiratory System at University of Evansville - StudyBlue

Vocal Cord Nodule. Vocal cord nodules are almost always associated with vocal abuse. They are confined to the true vocal cord, usually occurring on the free edge. There are five different histologic types of vocal cord nodules: myxoid, fibrinous, vascular, fibrous, and mixed. The vocal cord nodule will not stain with any specific immunohistochemical markers The laryngeal cavity is divided into three parts: the supraglottis (contains the false vocal cords), glottis (contains the true vocal cord), and subglottis. The laryngeal cavity is lined by pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium, except for the true vocal cords (area of physiological stress), which are lined by stratified squamous. A true vocal cord is one of the white, membranous folds attached by muscle to the thyroid and arytenoid cartilages of the larynx on their outer edges. The inner edges of the true vocal cords are free, allowing oscillation to produce sound. The size of the membranous folds of the true vocal cords differs between individuals producing voices with. The true vocal folds are the more inferior and are where sound is actually produced. The space or gap between the two vocal cords is known as the rima glottidis. The false vocal folds are located at the inferior edge of the vestibule just above the true vocal folds. The space between the true and false vocal folds is known as the ventricle

What is the difference between true and false vocal cords

The difference between the true and false vocal cords is

  1. True vocal cord definition is - either of the lower pair of vocal cords that enclose the lower part of the elastic membrane of the larynx, that extend from the inner surface of the thyroid cartilage near the median line to a process of the corresponding arytenoid cartilage on the same side of the larynx, and that when drawn taut, approximated, and subjected to the flow of breath produce voice
  2. This is the function of the true vocal cords. What contains the vocal cords? The larynx has two folds, the upper vestibular folds (false vocal cords) and the lower vocal cords (true vocal cords)..
  3. The true vocal cords are bands of tissue composed of muscle, fibrous ligament, and mucosa extending from the arytenoids posteriorly to the midline thyroid cartilage anteriorly. The false (or ventricular) vocal folds are situated superior to the true vocal cords and are separated from them by a lateral recess termed the laryngeal ventricle
  4. Function in speech production: There are two pairs of vocal folds (mucous membrane structures) in the larynx, the false vocal folds and the true vocal folds. Vibrations of the true vocal folds allow humans to make sounds such as speaking and singing, while the false vocal folds are responsible for resonance. Change in the vibration speed and.
  5. • The true vocal cords of an adult male are thicker and longer, and they produce lower tones than those of an adult female. • The entire larynx is involved in sound production because its walls vibrate, creating a composite sound

Comments: The true vocal cords may be paralyzed as a result of a viral illness, a surgical procedure, by involvement of lymphadenopathy or a mass in the mediastinum that would affect the left recurrent laryngeal nerve. Neoplasms in the thyroid or the mediastinum can also cause this. The left cord is more frequently paralyzed than the right ↳ ∴ bilat vocal cord paralysis doesn't effect expectorative functions o True vocal cords ! Most significant at preventing aspiration ! Upturned margins able to prevent ingress of air by resisting pressure from above ↳ why if laryngeal spasm ↑positive pressure only seals cords furthe True vocal cords are most frequently affected in laryngeal TB followed by the epiglottis, false cords and ventricles, arytenoids, posterior commissure and subglottic area. A specialized ETT was accurately placed such that the surface electrode was in contact with the true vocal cords, and the integrity of the NM system was confirmed by tapping.

Function • The larynx is the portion of the respiratory tract containing the vocal cords • The larynx functions in: 1. Deglutition (swallowing) protecting the trachea against food aspiration 2. respiration (breathing) 3. Phonation (voice production) commonly called the voice box true vocal cord: [TA] the sharp-edged fold of mucous membrane overlying and incorporating the vocal ligament and the thyroarytenoid muscle and stretching along either wall of the larynx from the angle between the laminae of the thyroid cartilage to the vocal process of the arytenoid cartilage; air flow causes the vocal folds to vibrate in.

Abnormal Laryngeal Function

Ventricular fold phonation (VFP) is a phenomenon characterized by phonation using the false vocal folds. Besides a substitution voice due to loss of the true vocal folds-so called compensatory type-the noncompensatory types have a psychogenic, functional, or habitual background Behind this cartilage are the vocal cords. These vocal cords do not have the shape of the strings that we commonly observe in musical instruments such as the violin or the guitar, but are folds or lips in a number of four: two upper folds that are the false cords or ventricular bands, and two folds inferiors that are the true vocal cords The opening between the vocal cords is known as rima glottidis, the size of which is altered by the muscles of phonation. Subglottis - From inferior border of the glottis to the inferior border of the cricoid cartilage. The interior surface of the larynx is lined by pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium. An important exception to this. The vocal cords or vocal folds are necessary for speech, and we generally think of this as their prime function.This might even be their prime function, as they have many more fancy design features to maximize speech production than for any other use. But other functions they do have, some of them quite important. The vocal cords can clamp shut very tightly, and do so automatically if anything. vocal folds aka true vocal cords. How is sound produced from our vocal cords. Air rushes across the vocal cords during exhalation causing them to vibrate. Intrinsic skeletal muscles change the tension in the ligaments and the diameter of the glottis. How are higher pitches produced

Vocal cord anatomy Britannic

Sometimes a pair of more delicate vocal cords are present anterior to true vocal cords These are called false vocal cords. Purring sound in cat is produced by these false vocal cords In Hippopotamus, true vocal cords are not found. Respiratory Organs (Lungs): 1. Situation Common sites of origin are the true vocal cords (glottis) and the supraglottic larynx. The least common site is the subglottic larynx, where only 1% of primary laryngeal cancers originate. Verrucous carcinoma, a rare variant of squamous cell carcinoma, usually arises in the glottic area and has a better survival rate than standard squamous cell.

A vestibular fold, or false vocal cord, is one of a pair of folded sections of mucous membrane. A true vocal cord is one of the white, membranous folds attached by muscle to the thyroid and arytenoid cartilages of the larynx on their outer edges. The inner edges of the true vocal cords are free, allowing oscillation to produce sound It is difficult for the higher overtones to come into play when too much vocal weight is present, so true ring is compromised in singers using excess thickness of the cords. For the optimum vocal health and best, most beautiful sound, singers should strive to integrate the thin edges of the cords throughout the whole vocal range from bottom to top Beneath the ventricle is the true vocal cord that extends from the vocal process of the arytenoid cartilage to the back side of the thyroid cartilage. The thin space between the left and right vocal cords is called the rima glottidis through which air must pass in order to vocalize and breathe The primary functions of the larynx are voice production, protection of the airway during respiration, and swallowing. The article reviews the most current scientific knowledge on the anatomy and function of the laryngeal-vocal cords system, integrating with the clinic, embryology, and related conditions

True Vocal Cords Medical Definition Merriam-Webster

The larynx is a complex tubular segment of the respiratory system formed by irregularly shaped plates of hyaline and elastic cartilage. The mucosa form two pairs of folds, false and true vocal cords, which extend into the lumen of the larynx. The laryngeal epithelium corresponding to the mechanicall Performs protective function by lowering the airways Facilitates respiratory function with air passage Conducts phonatory functions with the help of vocal cords Do You Know? The vestibular folds in the larynx are also known as false vocal cords, as those have no role to play in sound production. It is the lower folds that are the true vocal cords Damage to the vocal folds of the glottis may prevent an individual from being able to speak certain dialects. The glottis itself is comprised not only of the true vocal cords, but it also includes what is known as the rima glottidis. This is the space between the vocal cords and cartilages known as the arytenoid cartilages False vocal cord: A fold of mucous membrane covering muscle in the larynx. The false vocal cord separates the ventricle of the larynx from the vestibule of the larynx. Also called the false vocal fold. SLIDESHOW Heart Disease: Causes of a Heart Attack See Slideshow. Health Solutions From Our Sponsors

Function of the larynx - SLT inf

A: Muscles producing abduction of the vocal cords: Posterior crico-arytenoid is the only abductor to the vocal cords. It extends from the posterior surface of the lamina of the cricoid cartilage to the muscular process of the arytenoid. Actions: Abduction of the vocal cords. B. Muscles producing adduction of the vocal cord: Lateral crico-arytenoid True Vocal Cords ( aka Folds or Ligaments) Its just a fold of extra mucosa, and while it doesn't function in the way the vocal cords do in the production of sound and sound waves, you do get some functions that modulate the sounds and there's also an additional function: to help completely seal the airway on purpose.. Vocal Cords: The respiratory system allows us to breathe in oxygen and breathe out carbon dioxide. Respiration is a process that transports oxygen from the outside air to tissue cells and the. The clinical significance of nearly any epithelial tissue transition in the body is an increased propensity for cancer in these areas. The transition from the respiratory epithelium of the false vocal cord to the stratified squamous non-keratinizing epithelium of the true vocal fold is a common location for the formation of laryngeal cancer

The free superior margin of the conus elasticus is thickened to form the vocal ligament, which forms the vocal folds (true vocal cords) once covered by mucosa. The quadrangular membrane, another submucosal sheet, extends between the lateral aspects of the epiglottis and the anterolateral surface of the arytenoid cartilages on each side The larynx is a cartilaginous chamber about 4 cm (1.5 in.) long. Its primary function is to keep food and drink out of the airway, but it evolved the additional role of sound production (phonation) in many animals; hence, we colloquially think of it as the voice box.. Figure 1. Larynx and pharynx anatomy. Figure 2. Larynx anatomy Trachea (ventral view) Larynx. Pseudostratified columnar ciliated epithelium with seromucous glands in its lamina propria (laryngeal mucosa) continues in to the larynx and covers the false vocal fold and the end of the laryngeal ventricle (a depression between the false vocal fold and the true vocal cord).. Goblet cells, seromucous glands, lymphatic nodules and adipocytes are observed. Vocal cord dysfunction is due to transient obstruction of the upper airway associated with paradoxical adduction (closure) of the vocal folds (cords) and can occur during one or both stages of the respiratory cycle [].The larynx functions to provide protection of the lower airway, respiration, and phonation, all of which are regulated partially by involuntary brainstem reflexes Vocal cord paralysis and paresis can result from abnormal function of the nerves that control your voice box muscles (laryngeal muscles). Paralysis is a complete absence of vocal cord movement, caused by a complete loss of nerve input; paresis is a weakened vocal cord movement, caused by a partial loss of nerve input

Anatomy of the vocal folds. There are two pairs of vocal folds; the true folds consist of muscles, ligaments, and lining mucosa. The false folds are present superior to the true folds. The laryngeal ventricle is a recess that separates true folds from the false. Vocal folds extend from the arytenoid cartilage posteriorly to the midline anteriorly Relaxation of the vocal cords accompanies voluntary closure of the glottis, as in holding the breath, when the false vocal cords are said to have a valvular action. The muscular fibres which run from the arytenoid cartilages to the thyroid, nearly parallel to the true vocal cords, are those concerned in the act of relaxation when the cords are.

The false vocal cords (vestibular folds, ventricular folds, ventricular bands) are paired shelf-like structures located within the supraglottic larynx that divide the vestibule above from the ventricle below.. Gross anatomy. The vestibular ligaments are the ligamentous component of the false vocal cords and constitute the inferior edge of the quandrangular membrane on either side The glottis includes the true vocal cords and the anterior and posterior commissures. The subglottic region begins about 1 cm below the true vocal cords and extends to the lower border of the cricoid cartilage or the first tracheal ring An international nomenclature document provides diagnostic guidance for clinicians performing laryngoscopy, indicating that the following should be assessed and described: (1) location of the obstruction, that is, supraglottic (arytenoid area, epiglottis, or false vocal folds), glottic (true vocal folds), or both; (2) phase of the respiratory. Vocal folds (true vocal cords) Plicae vocales. The vocal folds, also called the true vocal cords, extend across the cavity of the larynx, the uppermost air passage of the lower respiratory system. System: Respiratory. Region: Neck. Function: Passing air can vibrate the folds, allowing them to function in the production of sound. The pitch of. Bilateral vocal fold (vocal cord) immobility (BVFI) is a broad term that refers to all forms of reduced or absent movement of the vocal folds. Bilateral vocal fold (cord) paralysis (BVFP) refers to the neurologic causes of bilateral vocal fold immobility (BVFI) and specifically refers to the reduced or absent function of the vagus nerve or it..

Does smoking affect our voice? - QuoraExam #2 - Speech And Hearing Sciences 320 with Burns at

21.2C: Larynx - Medicine LibreText

Anatomy of the Vocal Folds Structure & Function Common

  1. a propria), vocal ligament (intermediate and deep la
  2. ing the larynx involves inserting a small angled mirror, such as a dentist might use, into the back of the mouth. This mirror deflects a beam of light down onto the vocal folds and reflects the image of the vocal cords back up to the exa
  3. Vocal folds. Part of the mucous membrane of the larynx forms a pair of folds, called the vocal folds, or true vocal cords, which vibrate with expelled air and allows us to speak. Glottis. The slitlike passageway between the vocal folds is the glottis. Trache
  4. True Vocal Cords ( aka Folds or Ligaments) Its just a fold of extra mucosa, and while it doesn't function in the way the vocal cords do in the production of sound and sound waves, you do get some functions that modulate the sounds and there's also an additional function: to help completely seal the airway on purpose..
  5. A unilateral RLN injury produces abductor vocal cord paralysis, so the affected cord assumes a paramedian position which causes postoperative hoarseness (may be a delayed presentation of a few weeks). Bilateral vocal cord paralysis, on the other hand, can manifest as partial vs. complete airway obstruction
  6. In rare cases, even though both vocal cords may move quite well, the vocal cords themselves are so weak and small that even though they come together, there is still a gap in between resulting in a breathy voice. The vocal cords themselves, in fact, look bowed and is a common problem in the elderly population
and Function of Neck Organs | Radiology Key

Function of the Vocal Folds and Symptoms of Immobility

  1. The false vocal folds are not usually involved in the production of voice. They are formed from the same muscle that forms the true vocal folds but are positioned above these true folds. If they are pressed together during speech this obscures the true vocal folds. The resulting voice can sound harsh and breathy, with a lowered pitch
  2. Vocal cord injections are critical to restore your voice function. During many neck surgeries, including thyroidectomy and spine procedures, the nerves that move the vocal cords may be injured. These nerves may be completely transected (cut) or simply bruised. The severity of the voice problem is usually related to the severity of nerve injury.
  3. Question: QUESTION 1 Which Larynx Cartilage Connectives Directly To The True Vocal Cords? Corniculate Cartilage Arytenoid Cartilage Thyroid Cartilage Cricoid Cartilage QUESTION 2 The Functional Unit Of The Lung Is Lined With What Tissue Type
  4. True vocal cord Epiglottis Tracheal cartilages A BC Vocal cords Figure 5-3 The vocal cords. (a) Uppermost portion of the respiratory system, showing the location of the vocal cords. (b) Longitudinal section of the larynx showing the location of the vocal cords. Note the presence of the false vocal cord, so named because it does not function in.

Vocalis: Origin, insertion, innervation, action Kenhu

Larynx and Voice Box Videos - ENT US

The vestibular folds, or false vocal cords, are formed by the superior layer of infolded membrane; the vocal folds, or true vocal cords, are formed from the inferior layer of infolded membrane. The laryngeal ventricles extend laterally and are located between the vestibular and vocal folds The vocal cords, or vocal folds, are in the midsection of the larynx and stretch horizontally from the thyroid cartilage anteriorly, attaching to the vocal process of the arytenoid cartilage.

Anatomy of larynx

What is a False Vocal Cord? (with pictures

Vocal cord reinnervation: For younger patients who don't want an implant in their throat, it is possible to use alternative nerves from the neck to restore function of the vocal cord muscle. The goal is not to make the vocal cord move again but to provide nerve signals to the muscle that prevent atrophy and allow the vocal cord to maintain. When cancers grow here, they interfere with swallowing and cause pain in the ear, but only affect the voice in a minor way, leading to thick speech, hot potato voice or change in timbre. The lower part of the voice box contains the true vocal cords and extends down to the top of the windpipe, the cricoid cartilage In summary, static imaging showed vocal cord thickening in the majority of patients (80.9%). 17 In 12 patients (25.5%), signs of fibrosis located at the vocal cords were seen; in 6 patients (12.8%), signs of edema located at the vocal cords were seen; and in 9 patients (19.1%), a combination of fibrosis and edema was seen. Furthermore, impaired.

structure and function Study Guide (2013-14 Becker

Speech - Vocal cords Britannic

Glottis: space between two vocal cords. Hypopharynx: covered by non-keratinizing stratified squamous epithelium; contains mucosal glands, scattered lymphoid aggregates and rich lymphatic plexus. Reinke's space: lamina propria of true vocal cord, between base of squamous epithelium and vocal ligament Swallowing function was assessed clinically, at the bedside, by 2 study speech pathologists and videofluoroscopically by the study radiologist and 1 of the study speech pathologists, using standardized methods and diagnostic criteria (Appendix). Entry of >10% of bolus through the true vocal cords: Complete Because the typical paralyzed vocal cord fails to completely abduct during quiet breathing, one might expect that the most common imaging finding would be asymmetry in the appearance of the true vocal cords. However, a fullness of the paralyzed vocal cord was seen in only 45% of our patients In this study, the true vocal cords were the targets of observation with the middle transverse procedure, because the true vocal cords directly reflect the function of the recurrent nerve. Our visualization rate with the middle transverse procedure was similar to that reported in previous studies Supraglottic laryngectomy: Conservative surgery intended to preserve the laryngeal function. Standard procedure involves removal of epiglottis, false vocal cords, aryepiglottic folds, arytenoid cartilages, ventricle, upper one third of thyroid cartilage, and/or thyroid membrane. The true vocal cords and arytenoids remain in place to allow.

True vocal cords Definition & Meaning Dictionary

The false vocal folds sit just above the true vocal cords and prevent food, etc. from entering the trachea when swallowing. They typically don't play a major role in speech or singing. When you start to sing, you begin by breathing. The muscles of the larynx bring the vocal cords together Vocal cord palsy (VCP) is a major complication of thyroidectomy. Some patients have preexisting VCP prompting the need for routine or selective preoperative evaluation of the vocal cords. The study aims at ascertaining the prevalence of preoperative VCP and making appropriate recommendations. This is a retrospective study of all adult patients who had thyroidectomy at the University of Nigeria. Which of these functions cannot be attributed to the mucous membrane that lines the nasal cavity? Definition. D. initial gas exchange between air and blood occurs here: Term. The _____ cartilage marks the lowermost portion of the larynx. Definition. A. cricoid: Term. The true vocal cords are those that produce the sounds of the human voice. The Larynx and Vocal Cords - how sound is produced. The larynx, or voice box, is located in the neck and performs several important functions in the body. The larynx is involved in swallowing, breathing, and voice production. Sound is produced when the air which passes through the vocal cords causes them to vibrate and create soun

Anatomy and development and physiology of the larynx : GI

The vocal folds, also known popularly as vocal cords, are composed of twin infoldings of mucous membrane stretched horizontally across the larynx. They vibrate, modulating the flow of air being. Vocal cord paralysis (VCP) due to recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) dysfunction may herald the presence of mediastinal disease, including a variety of neoplastic, inflammatory, and vascular conditions (1,2). Although vocal cord function contributes to the ability to breathe, swallow, and phonate effectively, up to 40% of individuals wit

Vocal cord paralysis: anatomy, imaging and patholog

The glottis is the portion of the larynx containing the vocal cords and the glottic opening. Anatomically, the glottis is the part of the larynx extending from the junction between the true and false vocal cords at the apex of the laryngeal ventricle to a line one centimeter below the inferior aspect of the vocal cords Both true and false vocal cords derive motor innervation from the vagus, while sensory fibres from M3 muscarinic receptors (among others) in the laryngeal mucosa 23 pass via the vagus to the medulla. Activity within these areas directly influences autonomic functions such as the respiratory and cardiac cycles and gut motility Organic - Something is physically wrong with the mechanism. Functional - The physical structure is normal, but the mechanism is being used improperly or inefficiently. Sometimes an organic voice disorder, such as polyps or cysts (growths on the vocal folds) cause an individual to develop poor functional use of the voice The broader upper area is separated from the middle ventricular (false) vocal cords (folds) of mucous membrane, which circumscribe the rima vestibuli. The ventricle and the lower section are delimited by a pair of true vocal cords, between which is the rima glottidis. Overlying the cartilaginous framework of the larynx are the muscles An award-winning, radiologic teaching site for medical students and those starting out in radiology focusing on chest, GI, cardiac and musculoskeletal diseases containing hundreds of lectures, quizzes, hand-out notes, interactive material, most commons lists and pictorial differential diagnose

Laryngeal Ligaments and Folds - Vocal - Vestibular

Vocal fold paralysis (also known as vocal cord paralysis) is a voice disorder that occurs when one or both of the vocal folds don't open or close properly. Single vocal fold paralysis is a common disorder. Paralysis of both vocal folds is rare and can be life threatening. The vocal folds are two elastic bands of muscle tissue located in the. (2008). Vocal improvement after voice therapy in unilateral vocal fold paralysis. Journal of Voice, 22, 113-118. Schneider, SL. (2012). Behavioral Management of Unilateral Vocal Fold Paralysis and Paresis. Perspectives on Voice and Voice Disorders. 10.1044/vvd22.3.112 SulicaL, Rosen CA, PostmaGN, et al. (2010). Current practice in injection aug